The Space Our Love Demands

Author(s): Mark Henderson, Format: Hardback. Publisher: Quercus Publishing Plc, Pub. Date: ISBN Series: 50 Ideas.

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The consumption of sodium was too variable over the five menus to allow model convergence so the estimation of meeting the recommendations for sodium intake utilized separate models for each day.

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Following the completion of plate waste data collection, we held focus groups with teachers 2 sessions with 7 teachers and 8 teachers respectively for a total of 15 teachers , food service personnel 1 session with 5 employees , and educational aides EA 1 session with 6 educational aides in May Educational aides assist on the playground and in the cafeteria and hence their participation was relevant to the research question. Focus groups were conducted with a semi-structured script to assess reactions to recess first in a manner that allowed for group dynamics among work groups but not across work groups due to the unique job responsibilities.

Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim for analyses. Qualitative data were analyzed by method of constant comparison which stems from Grounded Theory [ 24 ] but has also been used to analyze focus group content [ 25 ]. Three researchers independently coded for main themes. Following the individual theme coding consensus was reached regarding key themes. The authors confirm that this study adheres to the RATS guidelines on qualitative research reporting.

On all 5 study days, the median percent of milk consumed was higher for students in the intervention group e. Recess order was not significantly associated with the probability of a student meeting the USDA nutritional standards for total calories, protein, Vitamin C, Vitamin A or iron. However, students in the intervention were 1. Vegetable intake on measurement days one and two was low when sweet potatoes and salad with ranch dressing were served.


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On measurement day three, when carrots with ranch dressing were served, intake increased for both groups. On measurement days four and five vegetable intake was highest when potato rounds and tater tots were served. Similarly, fruit intake was poor when students were served unsweetened Marionberries from frozen berries, quartered oranges with peel remaining, kiwi halves with skin on and canned peaches days one, two, four, and five respectively. Some students were unfamiliar with kiwis and did not know how to eat them, biting into fuzzy kiwi skins versus peeling them.

Fruit intake was highest when pineapple with cottage cheese was served.

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We hypothesized children with recess before lunch would have fewer behavioral infractions as reported by teachers and staff than children with recess after lunch. Our findings from four focus groups with teachers, kitchen staff and educational aides support this. Classroom teachers with students in the intervention group consistently noted that students came back to the classroom more calm and ready to begin lessons. They stated the students were better able to settle into their work when transitioning from the lunchroom rather than the playground as illustrated by the following quotes:.

The staff and teachers also identified unanticipated consequences of recess before lunch. For example, one group of students had recess, lunch, and then physical education class before coming back to their classroom. In response, students were offered teacher and parent supported snacks, which are given at the discretion of the teacher at inconsistent times.

Two teachers in focus group session two both cited having five hours or more between meals but they handled this differently. Further, students arrive at various times in the morning with differing home schedules. In focus group session four, foodservice staff perceived no difference in staffing or preparing menu items during the intervention and identified the issue of timing and meal spacing as a problem regardless of recess order.

As a consequence of the intervention, children were outside in smaller numbers and in the lunch room in smaller numbers; in focus group three the educational aides found this to be much more manageable. When recess is first they must return to class on time. Students in the intervention group drank significantly more low-fat milk than controls and were therefore more likely to meet recommendations for calcium and fat intake. While the milk consumption was greater on each of the five observation days, days one and two represent the majority of the difference.

It is noteworthy that on day 1 and 2 when milk consumption was high the fruit and vegetable consumption was low. The increased milk consumption may be reflecting hunger or the need for additional calories when other items served were less palatable. There were no significant differences in food intake.

Fruit and vegetable intake varied by acceptability of what was offered for both groups with little impact due to recess timing. Since these are isolated days, our findings suggest that children in this age group eat the foods they are familiar with, like, or prefer. Our increased milk consumption finding is unique but warrants further investigation since days three, four and five represent a small difference in consumption between the intervention group and controls.

Further, this finding is supported by a recent publication which found milk and milk products contribute significantly to micronutrient density in U. While others have found changes in food consumption, we did not find a significant difference [ 13 , 14 , 27 ]. We cannot explain the non-significant difference in our dietary intake findings but we could certainly see that all children had preferred menu items that were more readily consumed by both intervention and control groups. This finding has implications for those planning school meals as it may be of value to offer foods that meet nutritional guidelines and are accepted by children in the target age group.

The barriers encountered were similar to those stated in previous studies [ 15 , 16 ]. The first barrier was scheduling.

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Even with a willing and supportive school principal, rearranging the schedule was a challenge. The kitchen staff and educational aides worked slightly longer hours to accommodate the schedule changes and this increased staffing costs. Hand-washing for the recess before lunch group was also an issue; as others have identified [ 15 — 17 ]. The cafeteria does not have hand-washing sinks and therefore sanitizing hand wipes served in place of hand-washing. This study is not without limitations. First, this intervention was held in one rural elementary school and therefore cannot be generalized to larger, metropolitan schools.

Second, children eat pre-portioned foods from a single service line at this school while many schools allow children to self-serve from a salad bar, hot food buffet or milk dispensers. We were not able to examine how self-service might influence our findings. Additionally, because the school is a low-income school, most children participate in the NSLP at no cost to their families. Finally, there was variation in the children present at each measurement day due to absences that may introduce bias.

Despite these barriers and limitations, we have contributed to a under explored school-based policy that has practical significance. While our study was conducted in just one elementary school we did have power to detect differences. Future research should examine recess before lunch as an intervention in larger districts across multiple schools.

Our milk consumption finding is important in light of the fact that for many children it is an important source of calcium.


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Our qualitative research findings do support the stated hypothesis as children returned to the classroom calmer and ready to begin lessons. Colorful illustrations and a relatable plot will keep students engaged in this story, which can also be used to teach problem and solution as well as to make, revise, and confirm predictions. The book and lesson are also available for levels U and X. Use of Raz-Kids. Leveled Book Lesson. Reading Strategy Make, revise, and confirm predictions.

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